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Yucca filamentosa linn.
Plantae; Spermatophyta, Angiospermae - Flowering Plants; Monocotyledonae; Liliiflorae / Liliidae; Asparagales; Agavaceae
History and authority: Introduced and proved by Rowell, North A. Journ of Hom. New Sery, VI, 29 in 1875; Allen; Encyclop of Mat. Med. Vol. X, 172; Clarke: A Dictionary of Pract. Mat. Med., Vol. III, 1579.
Description of the substance
Adam's needle looks a little like a small palm, but is actually more closely related to the lilies. The evergreen leaves of Adam's needle are straplike, about 1 in (2.5 cm) wide and up to 2-3 ft (0.6-0.9 m) long. The leaves are basal; that is, they all originate from one point, taking the form of a rosette. The margins of the leaves are decorated with long curly threads or "filaments" that peel back as the leaf grows, eventually dropping off on older leaves. The inflorescence is very showy and borne on an erect spike up to 12 ft (3.7 m) high (taller in warm climates, shorter where winters are cold). There are up to several dozen individual flowers on an inflorescence, they are white and about 2 in (5 cm) long. The plant dies after flowering and fruiting, but produces lateral buds that start new plants around the edges of the original.
There are a number of variegated selections, the most popular possibly being 'Gold Sword' which has stripes of gold variegation down the center of the leaves while 'Bright Edge' has green centers with gold leaf margins. 'Gold Garland' also has gold variegation that is prominent on young leaves and transforms to green as the leaf ages. 'Ivory' has cream-colored variegation.
Adam's needle is native to southeastern North America from North Carolina to Florida and west to Tennessee and Mississippi. It grows in dry, sandy or rocky habitats and in fields, road shoulders and open woods. It has become naturalized far outside its original range.
Light: prefers full sun, but will tolerate some light shade
Moisture: average to dry soil - drought tolerant
Hardiness: USDA Zones 5-10
Propagation: By seed, root cuttings and offshoots. When you dig up a yucca to transplant, about a year later you often find the site ringed with baby yuccas growing from pieces of root left behind!
Use in mixed borders and natural areas. Excellent in rock gardens and as an accent among other perennials. Yuccas are very drought tolerant and do well in outdoor container even without supplementary irrigation. Combine with agaves, grasses, cactus and palms to create low maintenance xeroscapes of interesting textures and forms.
There is much confusion regarding how many species of Adam's needle there are. Some experts (the "splitters") recognize Y. flaccida, Y. smalliana and Y. concava, as separate species, and others (the "lumpers") lump them all with Y. filamentosa. Floridata "lumps" these species together as we reference the Institute For Systemic Botany at the University of South Florida for this kind of information. Only additional research (and DNA analysis) will settle the question of whether to split or lump!
The flowers of many yucca species are edible and used raw in salads or cooked. Those from Adam's needle are said to taste like Belgian endive.