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Prostate. 2004 Dec 15; [Epub ahead of print]
Quantitative and immunohistochemical evaluation of PCNA, androgen receptors, apoptosis, and Glutathione-S-Transferase P1 on preneoplastic changes induced by cadmium and zinc chloride in the rat ventral prostate.
Arriazu R, Pozuelo JM, Martin R, Rodriguez R, Santamaria L.
Department of Physiology, Morphology, and Nutritional Sciences, San Pablo-CEU University, Madrid, Spain.
BACKGROUND: This study was directed to evaluate the immunoexpression of markers for cell proliferation, apoptosis, nuclear androgen receptors, and Glutathione-S-Transferase P1 (GSTP1), in preneoplastic changes induced by cadmium chloride (Cd) and cadmium plus zinc chloride (Cd + Zn) in rat prostate. METHODS: The following parameters were calculated in ventral prostate of normal rats and rats that received Cd or Cd + Zn in drinking water during 24 months: numerical densities of columnar, basal, and GSTP1 immunoreactive epithelial cells; percentages of cells immunoreactive to: PCNA, (LI(PCNA)), androgen receptors (LI(AR)), and of apoptotic cells. RESULTS: The LI(PCNA) was significantly increased in the animals exposed to Cd + Zn, whereas the numerical densities of both columnar (N(V) columnar cells), and GSTP1 immunoreactive (N(V) GSTP1+) cells were significantly increased in the animals treated with metals in comparison with the controls. No significant differences between the two sources of dysplasias (Cd and Cd + Zn) respecting to LI(PCNA), N(V) columnar cells, and N(V) GSTP1+ were observed. The two types of dysplasias considered together showed a significant increase for the N(V) basal, N(V) columnar, and N(V) GSTP1+ cells in comparison with normal acini of treated and controls. The percentage of apoptotic nuclei did not show significant differences among the three groups studied. CONCLUSIONS: (1) The zinc has little influence in the development of the dysplastic changes of the rat prostate mediated by cadmium. (2) The decrease of apoptosis has little influence in the development of dysplasia. (3) GSTP1 could play a role in the response to the oxidative stress in the dysplastic changes caused by cadmium. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Prostate. 1980;1(2):239-49. Related Articles, Links
Zinc65 absorption in patients with carcinoma of the prostate.
Spencer H, Kramer L, Osis D, Norris C, Evans C.
Metabolic Section, Veterans Administration Hospital, Hines, IL 60141, USA.
The intestinal absorption of 65 Zn was determined in patients with carcinoma of the prostate prior to treatment and during estrogen therapy. Following an oral tracer dose of 65 ZnCl2, plasma levels and urinary and fecal excretions of 65 Zn were determined. The absorption of 65 Zn was low in six of eight patients, particularly in three patients who had extensive metastatic bone involvement. During estrogen therapy the absorption of 65 Zn increased markedly in these patients, and this increase correlated with the clinical remission of the neoplastic process. In one patient who did not respond to estrogen therapy, 65 Zn absorption was normal prior to treatment and did not increase during estrogen therapy. In patients free of neoplasia estrogen administration did not increase 65 Zn absorption, and even decreased it. These results indicate that the intestinal absorption of 65 Zn is decreased during the active phase of carcinoma of the prostate and improves during clinical remission induced by estrogen therapy.
Toxicology. 2005 Feb 14;207(2):283-91. Related Articles, Links
Antioxidant defenses and lipid peroxidation in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus following acute exposure to malathion and/or zinc chloride.
Brocardo PS, Pandolfo P, Takahashi RN, Rodrigues AL, Dafre AL.
Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, SC 88040-900, Florianopolis, Brazil.
This study investigates the effects of acute exposure to organophosphate insecticide malathion (250 mg/kg, i.p.) and/or ZnCl2 (5 mg/kg, i.p.), with the following parameters: lipid peroxidation and the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), and the levels of total glutathione (GSH-t) in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of female rats. Malathion exposure elicited lipid peroxidation and reduced AChE activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. It also reduced the activity of GR and GST, and increased G6PDH activity in the cerebral cortex, without changing the levels of GSH-t and GPx activity. ZnCl2 exposure reduced AChE activity and caused a mild pro-oxidative effect, since lipid peroxidation was increased in the hippocampus. ZnCl2, individually or in combination with malathion, caused a reduction in GR and GST activity in the cerebral cortex. Malathion and/or ZnCl2 did not change the GSH-t levels. Moreover, ZnCl2 prevented the increase in G6PDH activity caused by malathion. It showed that ZnCl2 had little effect against the changes induced by malathion. In fact, zinc itself produced pro-oxidant action, such as the reduction in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes GR and GST.
Mil Med. 2005 Jan;170(1):1-6. Related Articles, Links
Evaluation of protective ointments used against dermal effects of nitrogen mustard, a vesicant warfare agent.
Karayilanoglu T, Kenar L, Yuksel A, Gunhan O, Kose S, Kurt B.
Department of NBC Defense, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, 06018 Ankara, Turkey.
Mustard, a vesicant warfare agent, has cytotoxic, mutagenic, and cytostatic effects via alkylation of DNA and inhibition of DNA replication. Since symptoms appear following a latent period, it can cause some subacute and chronic effects to occur and delay in the treatment. Therefore, the main approach should be the use of protective preparation to reduce the skin toxicity. Thus, this study was conducted in guinea pigs (350-400 g) shaved in areas of 10 x 10 cm. Mechlorethamine HCl (100 mg), a nitrogen mustard derivative, in ethanol was applied by spraying on hairless regions where previously prepared pharmaceutical topical formulations were medicated before. The experimental regions of the animals were kept preserved from environmental factors. Forty-eight hours after the application of the protective ointments and mechlorethamine consecutively, skin-damaging effects were macroscopically evaluated in terms of erythema formation, ulceration, necrosis, and inflammation occurrences. Then, punch biopsy was performed from these damaged sites for histopathological evaluation. Although numerous topical formulations were prepared and tested for protection, according to microscopic examination of the pathologic sections, tissue specimen treated with the ointment containing the mixture of zinc oxide, zinc chloride, dimethylpolysiloxane in a base of petroleum jelly was determined as being the most effective protective against skin injury caused by the vesicant agent.
New Phytol. 2005 Feb;165(2):473-80. Related Articles, Links
Delay of Iris flower senescence by protease inhibitors.
Pak C, van Doorn WG.
Agrotechnology and Food Innovations (A & F), Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen, the Netherlands.
* Visible senescence of the flag tepals in Iris x hollandica (cv. Blue Magic) was preceded by a large increase in endoprotease activity. Just before visible senescence about half of total endoprotease activity was apparently due to cysteine proteases, somewhat less than half to serine proteases, with a minor role of metalloproteases. * Treatment of isolated tepals with the purported serine protease inhibitors AEBSF [4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride] or DFP (diisopropyl-fluorophosphate) prevented the increase in endoprotease activity and considerably delayed or prevented the normal senescence symptoms. * The specific cysteine protease-specific E-64d reduced maximum endoprotease activity by 30%, but had no effect on the time to visible senescence. Zinc chloride and aprotinin reduced maximum endoprotease activity by c. 50 and 40%, respectively, and slightly delayed visible senescence. A proteasome inhibitor (Z-leu-leu-Nva-H) slightly delayed tepal senescence, which indicates that protein degradation in the proteasome may play a role in induction of the visible senescence symptoms. * It is concluded that visible senescence is preceded by large-scale protein degradation, which is apparently mainly due to cysteine- and serine protease activity, and that two (unspecific) inhibitors of serine proteases considerably delay the senescence symptoms.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 1998 Jan;24(1):11-7. Related Articles, Links
Inhibition of corneal metabolism of deslorelin by EDTA and ZnCl2.
Dani BA, Kompella UB.
Department of Pharmacal Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5503, USA.
It was the aim of this study to determine whether deslorelin is degraded by the rabbit corneal tissue and to further delineate the mechanisms. Deslorelin was incubated with intact cornea either alone or in the presence of 0.1 mM ouabain, 0.1% 2,4-dinitrophenol, 0.1 mM phosphoramidon, 0.1 mM N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethylketone (TPCK), 0.1-2% EDTA, 0.1-1% ZnCl2, 0.1% dithiothreitol (DTT), or 0.1% N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) at 37 degrees C. In addition, deslorelin alone was incubated with cornea at 4 degrees C. Following a 90-min incubation, the supernatants were analyzed using a reversed-phase HPLC. Metabolite peaks observed in controls at 37 degrees C were not detected in the low-temperature study, suggesting inhibition of metabolism at low temperature. Intact drug remaining in the supernatant was not altered by ouabain and dinitrophenol, suggesting that energy-dependent corneal uptake is not likely for deslorelin. Phosphoramidon and TPCK failed to alter deslorelin levels, indicating that phosphoramidon and TPCK-sensitive endopeptidases did not contribute to the observed metabolism. DTT and NEM also failed to affect deslorelin levels. However, 2% EDTA and 1% ZnCl2 significantly elevated the intact deslorelin levels by 44 and 60%, respectively, and the metabolite peaks almost completely disappeared. These observations are consistent with the corneal metabolism of deslorelin by either metallo-peptidases or metal-dependent peptidases.
Oral Health Prev Dent. 2004;2(1):49-58.
A systematic review of the effectiveness of anticalculus dentifrices.
Netuveli GS, Sheiham A.
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London Medical School, London, UK.
PURPOSE: To assess the evidence on the effectiveness of commercially available anticalculus dentifrices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic search for published and unpublished epidemiological data in 7 electronic databases, 5 journals, and the bibliographies of retrieved papers and by making contact with subject experts in this field. Thirty-two reports were identified containing comparisons of one or more active agents with a placebo dentifrice and calculus measured using the Volpe-Manhold Index (VMI). RESULTS: Random effect model for 3-month studies showed an effect size of -0.6 for all comparisons. The effect sizes varied from -0.3 for dentifrices with zinc chloride 0.5% to -1.1 for pyrophosphate 1.3% and copolymer 1.5% dentifrices. Meta-analysis of all the studies with 6-month follow-up gave an effect size of -1.1 (-1.5 to -0.8) and for 12-month follow-up the effect size was -13.6 (-21.4 to -5.8). CONCLUSIONS: Anticalculus dentifrices containing pyrophosphates, zinc compounds and/or co-polymers were effective in significantly reducing calculus scores (VMI).
Chloride of Zinc is an active poison and a powerful disinfectant and being readily accessible in the form of "Sir Wm. Burnett's Disinfectant Fluid," has occasioned many poisonings, both accidental and suicidal.
By inhalation: cough, sore throat, burning sensation, respiration difficult, breathlessness. Pulmonar oedema.
On the skin: scalds, pain, redness.
By ingestion: abdominal pain, burning sensation in the throat and chest, nausea, vomiting, shock or collaps. Pancreas damnage.
This substance is very toxic for acquatic living organism.