Clinical studies


Veterinary Clinical Research Database for Homeopathy: Placebo-controlled trials

Clausen J., Albrecht H., Mathie R.T.

Complementary Therapies in Medicine (2013) 21, 2:115-120

In the last three decades the number of clinical trials in veterinary homeopathy has increased considerably but, unfortunately, it has not yet been published in a relevant way.

Clinical research in veterinary homeopathy has some disadvantages such as the interview-based on the animal owners, the limited repertorisation and the scarce number of provings in animals. Moreover, a human repertory and Materia Medica, are used to ?nd the homeopathic remedy (Similimum): this approach is not accepted by some authors. However, clinical research in veterinary homeopathy has some advantages: the stable and similar environmental conditions for patients located in the same pen, kennel, etc.; the easier possibility to acquire larger numbers of participants, at least of livestock animals, and to maintain blinding.

The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the database for clinical research in veterinary homeopathy, with a focus on placebo-controlled clinical studies.



Randomised controlled trials of veterinary homeopathy: Characterising the peer-reviewed

research literature for systematic review

Mathie R. T., Hacke D., Clausen J. Homeopathy (2012) 101, 196-203

The application of homeopathy in veterinary medicine has been used in the treatment of many diseases of both livestock and pets but the access of publication on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is difficult.

In this work, the authors have undertaken a major program of systematic review of the available literature, identifying four main features to be observed in the publication:

(a) studies on treatment than prevention;

(b) studies with placebo-controlled studies compared with conventional versus control or untreated,

(c) with respect to non-individualized individualized studies (standardized)

(d) published in peer-reviewed journal with respect, not peer-reviewed.

Each of the selected jobs were subjected to complete extraction of the data, including the evaluation of internal validity (risk of bias) according to the method Cochrane.



An evaluation of owner expectation on apparent treatment effect in a blinded comparison of 2 homeopathic remedies for firework noise sensitivity in dogs

Nina Rachel Cracknell, Daniel Simon Mills

Journal of Veterinary Behavior (2011) 6: 21-30

The problem of noise sensitivity in dogs, in particular for thunders or fireworks is widespread. There is a need to develop studies on the use of alternative therapies to face the problem of noise sensitivity in dogs.

A blinded and randomized study was carried out to investigate the ability of dog owners to report the effects of different therapies for the treatment of stress from noise caused by fireworks in their dogs.


Systemic approach: affinity between behavioural medicine and unicist homeopathy.

Antoni M., Pisseri F., Tarricone D., Guidi G.

Praxis (2011) 32, 1: 24-28.

The Authors compared the points in common between behavioural medicine and the homeopathic method of complexity. Both behavioural medicine and homeopathy base the therapeutic approach on the search of the “sense” and the causes of the patient’s suffering. It is necessary to find the strategy able to explain all the symptoms according to a systemic principle.

Psychosomatic medicine, which is based on the hypothesis of the unity of soma and psyche and on the psyco-neuro-endocrine-immunology, represents the combination of behavioural medicine and homeopathy.

As an example, the Authors reported a clinical case of cohabitation between two cats, which can explain the choice of a therapeutic combination of behavioural medicine and homeopathy.



Homeopathic prescribing for chronic conditions in equine veterinary practice in the UK

R. T. Mathie, BSc, PhD1, E. S. Baitson, BSc1, L. Hansen, DVM, CertIAVH, MRCVS1, M. F. Elliott, BVSc, VetMFHom, MRCVS1 and J. Hoare, BVSc, VetMFHom, MRCVS1


Twelve Faculty of Homeopathy veterinarians recorded data systematically at 777 consecutive homeopathic appointments for horses over a period of 12 months. A spreadsheet enabled the recording of information, which included the date of appointment; horse and owner identity (anonymised); sex of horse; main medical problem treated; whether the condition was chronic or acute; whether the appointment was new or a follow-up; owner-assessed clinical outcome on a seven-point scale, ranging from -3 to +3, compared with the first appointment; homeopathic medicine(s) prescribed; and whether any conventional or other complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) was being used concurrently to treat the condition. Data from 289 horses comprised a total of 305 individual conditions identified as chronic in nature, of which 234 had a follow-up assessment. At the final appointment for chronic cases during the study period, 4.3 per cent were receiving conventional medication and 17.1 per cent were being given another CAM treatment in addition to homeopathy. The eight chronic conditions most frequently treated with homeopathy were: arthritis, headshaking, laminitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sweet itch, dermatitis, sarcoidosis and Cushing's syndrome.



Efficacy of homeopathic and antibiotic treatment strategies in cases of mild and moderate bovine clinical mastitis

Werner C, Sobiraj A, Sundrum A,

Department of Animal Nutrition and Animal Health, Faculty of Organic Agricultural Sciences, University of Kassel, Nordbahnhofstr. 1a, D-37213 Witzenhausen, Germany


The objective of this clinical control trial was to examine the effectiveness of the classical homeopathic treatment strategy in cases of mild and moderate bovine clinical mastitis in comparison with antibiotic and placebo treatments. Owing to characteristics of the selected herds, only cases of clinical mastitis caused by environmental pathogens and clinical cases with negative bacteriological result in the pre-treatment milk sample were included in the trial. A total of 136 lactating dairy cows with 147 affected quarters from four herds in Germany were randomly allocated to three treatment groups. The cows were examined on days 0, 1, 2 and on days 7, 14, 28 and 56 post initial infection to assess clinical signs. Simultaneously, with the exception of days 1 and 2, quarter milk samples for laboratory examinations (bacteriology, somatic cell count) were collected to assess bacteriological and cytological cure rates. On days 28 and 56, treatment strategies did not differ significantly with respect to the clinical outcomes and the total cure rate in cases of bacteriological negative mastitis (n=56). In cases of pathogen-positive mastitis (n=91), the cure rate after 4 and 8 weeks was similar between the two treatment strategies, homeopathy and antibiotic treatment, but the difference between the homeopathic and the placebo treatment at day 56 was significant (P<0·05). The results indicate a therapeutic effect of homeopathic treatment in cases of mild and moderate clinical mastitis. However, independent of treatment strategy and bacteriological status, the total cure rate was on a low level, revealing limitations in the effectiveness of both antibiotic and homeopathic treatment strategies.


Pain: Mechanisms and Management in Horses

Muir WW.

Equine Anesthesia and Analgesia Consulting Services, 338 West 7th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201, USA


Pain is a multidimensional sensory phenomenon that has evolved as a protective method for maintaining homeostasis and facilitating tissue repair. Both excitatory and inhibitory physiologic and pathologic mechanisms are involved in its generation and maintenance. Untreated pain and nervous system changes (plasticity) that occur during chronic pain make pain much more difficult or impossible to effectively treat. Therapies directed toward the treatment of pain should be mechanism based and preventative whenever possible. Prospective, randomized clinical trials conducted in horses that suffer from naturally occurring pain will help to determine the current best approaches to effective pain therapy.


Homeopathic prescribing for chronic conditions in feline and canine veterinary practice

Robert T. Mathie, Elizabeth S. Baitson, Lise Hansen, Mark F. Elliott, John Hoare

Homeopathy, Volume 99, Issue 4, October 2010, Pages 243-248


This article presents data gathered from 21 homeopathic practitioners, during their clinical activity regarding chronic illnesses of cats and dogs treated with homeopathic individualized remedies (in a few cases using chemical drugs), over a period of at least 12 months. The information acquired from this study regards 400 cats and 1504 dogs, where dermatitis was the predominant chronic disease that both species manifested


Database on veterinary clinical research in homeopathy

Clausen J, Albrecht H.

Homeopathy. 2010 Jul;99(3):189-91

Questo lavoro presenta la realizzazione di un database accessibile gratuitamente a tutti tramite internet, all’interno del quale sono contenuti studi clinici in omeopatia veterinaria eseguiti con vari criteri (trials clinici randomizzati e non, studi osservazionali, provings di rimedi, case reports e case series) su 22 aspetti clinici e con 8 diversi gruppi di specie animale. Una banca dati di studi di pronta consultazione


Homeopathic prescription of the group

Pisseri F. Quaderni di zoobiodi. (2010) 4: 53-60.

Homeopathic medicine has a central role in health management organic farms for the absence of residues, the low cost and the easy handling. The homeopathy, based on the principle of similarity, can be applied to groups of animals by means of a suitable methodology, and the study of the case covers the whole agro-ecosystem. We summarize the different application phases: the homeopathic consultation, the analysis of the case, the prescription applied to a group of farm animals. It presents the case of a herd of cattle where it was prescribed the remedy Arsenicum album XMK. The results show an excellent clinical follow-up, accompanied by a parasitological monitoring.


The homeopathic remedy for control of gastrointestinal strongyles in sheep.

Pisseri F. Quaderni ZooBioDi (2010)  4: 61-67.

Homeopathic therapy can be a valid tool for the control of parasites in sheep, by helping the enhance the host-parasite natural balance. The methodology for the finding of the homeopathic remedy is to research the background of the group, through the visit, the repertorisation and the differential diagnosis. The article describes the application of this method in a flock of sheep breed Zerasca, for which was prescribed Lachesis XMK, applying the principle of similarity. It was evaluated the effectiveness of treatment for the control of gastrointestinal strongylosis through a randomized controlled study, with the presence three groups: "homeopathic" "control", and “treated with conventional medicine”. The statistical analysis showed highly significant differences related to the treatment, showing a reduction in parasitic burden in the group treated with homeopathy, and a maintenance of it at levels below the health risk.



Pilot study of the effect of individualised homeopathy on the pruritus associated with atopic dermatitis in dogs

Hill PB, Hoare J, Lau-Gillard P, Rybnicek J, Mathie RT

Vet Rec. 2009 Mar 21;164(12):364-70

This pilot study was carried out on 20 dogs affected by confirmed atopic dermatitis. In the first phase, the individuals were treated with a veterinary homeopath, selected on a case-to-case basis and the owners were asked to record any improvement of the pruritus, using a validated scale. The individuals who would manifest improvement would pass on to the second phase, where they were treated with either a remedy or placebo in a randomized manner, and the owners would continue to assess any possible changes. Even though the number of subjects is very low, 3 cases out of 3 resulted in a distinct effect between remedy and placebo.



An evaluation of owner expectation on apparent treatment effect in a blinded comparison of 2 homeopathic remedies for firework noise sensitivity in dogs

 NR Cracknell, D.S. Mills

Animal Behavior, Cognition and Welfare Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom


A blinded and randomized study was carried out to investigate whether dog owners would report different treatment effects depending on whether they knew they might be administering a placebo, versus if they knew they were definitely administering a homeopathic remedy. A secondary aim was to determine the consistency of owner reports of treatment effect across multiple trial periods. A total of 73 dogs with a stable, predictable, and easily assessable response to firework noises were enrolled and randomly allocated to receive 1 of the 2 homeopathic preparations along with a basic behavior modification program. Treatment A was a homeopathic treatment formulated for firework noise sensitivity that had previously been tested in a placebo-controlled study by the authors, and Treatment B was a different formulation for the same condition. The same allocated treatment was trialed on 2 occasions by all participants to allow assessment of owner-report reliability. It was found that knowledge of participating in a placebo-controlled trial had no effect on the owners’ perception of treatment effect, and that their reports of effect were consistent across both trial periods. No specific effect of homeopathic treatment was found in this study; however, it was observed that the reported behavioral effects that followed each treatment were similar across the 2 firework periods, but that there was a consistently different pattern of behavioral effects reported between Treatment groups A and B. These results might be ascribed to either a treatment or population effect. We suggest that examination of the consistency of owner-reported effects within and between treatments may be used as part of the suite of methodologies available to investigate whether any specific effect can be ascribed to homeopathic interventions.


Homeopathy as replacement to antibiotics in the case of Escherichia coli diarrhoea in neonatal piglets

I. Camerlink, L. Ellinger, E.J. Bakker and E.A. Lantinga

The use of antibiotics in the livestock sector is increasing to such an extent that it threatens negative consequences for human health, animal health and the environment. Homeopathy might be an alternative to antibiotics. It has therefore been tested in a randomised placebo-controlled trial to prevent Escherichia coli diarrhoea in neonatal piglets.



Use of homeopathy in parasites control plans in a flock of Zerasca sheep

M. N. Benvenuti, F. Pisseri, J. Goracci, L. Giuliotti, F. Macchioni, P. Verità & G. Guidi

Pisa, Italy


The control of gastrointestinal parasites in livestock relies almost exclusively on multiple and regular dosing with anthelmintics. That involves in problems linked with residues in food products and environment encouraging researchers in studying alternatives or new helminth control methods (Ketzis et al., 2006). Among these, homeopathy could play a strategic role in solving health problems; however, at present, there is a lack of scientific results with validated techniques used on a large scale




Clinical management of babesiosis in dogs with homeopathic Crotalus horridus 200 C

Chaudhuri,S. ; Varshney,J.P. 2007

Clinical Diagnosis laboratory, Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243122 UP, India

Homeopathic Crotalus horridus 200C was evaluated in 13 clinical cases of babesiosis in dogs, compared with another 20 clinical cases treated with diminazine. Babesiosis is an important tropical tick-borne haemoprotozoan disease in dogs clinically manifested by anorexia, dehydration, temperature, dullness/depression, diarrhoea/constipation, pale mucosa, hepatomegaly, vomiting/nausea, splenomegaly, distended abdomen/ascites, yellow coloured urine, emaciation/weight loss, and occular discharge


A retrospective observational study of leishmania-infected dogs: comparison between homeopathic and conventional therapies

Pisseri F., Terracciano G., Gavazza A. ,Bizzeti M., Guidi G., Mancianti F.

Evid. Based Complement. Altern. Med., September 2007; 4: 65 - 68.

This study was carried out on 60 dogs which were divided into two groups: homeopathic (treated with individualized remedies) and allopathic (treated with conventional drugs). From both clinical and metabolical points of view, positive results were found without inflicting any side effects.



Administration of Thuja occidentalis in homeopathic dilution in goats vaccinated against bluetongue virus: a

preliminary study

Grossi A., Lacetera N., Ronchi B.

Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 13, Suppl. 1, 2004, 593-596

Vaccination for bluetongue with attenuated vaccine serotype 2 inhibits non specific lymphoblastogenesis, with consequent negative effects on animal health.

The study evaluates the effects on non specific lymphoblastogenesis of Thuja occidentalis 200 CH on 20 goats through the measurement of DNA synthesis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by various mitogenic substances.

Animals are divided into 4 groups homogeneous for race, age, sex; one group has been vaccinated and treated with the homeopathic remedy, one group only vaccinated, one group treated with homeopathic remedy only and one was untreated.

The vaccinated group shows a response to mitogens significantly lower than before vaccination, on the contrary, the group vaccinated and treated with the homeopathic remedy shows a normal response to mitogens, with no statistically difference in the time; the same happens in the untreated group and in the group treated with homeopathic remedy only.